This page is not intended as patient information. For information on seeing your GP about symptoms of ovarian cancer or diagnosis, please visit this page.
Research shows that late stage diagnosis is a major contributor to the UK’s poor survival rates for ovarian cancer. GPs play a crucial role in ruling out ovarian cancer at the first suspicion, to ensure women are diagnosed at the earliest possible stage.
- Risk factors
- Diagnostic tests
- Common problems diagnosing ovarian cancer
- Screening programmes
The two greatest risk factors for ovarian cancer are age and family history. Almost 85 per cent of all diagnosed cases occur in women over the age of 50.
Find out more about risk factors.
A distinct set of symptoms are experienced, even by patients with very early stage disease, according to conclusive evidence found in recent research.
Symptoms are frequent (usually occurring more than 12 times a month or more) and persistent, and include:
- Increased abdominal size/persistent bloating - not bloating that comes and goes
- Difficulty eating or feeling full
- Pelvic or abdominal pain
- Needing to wee more urgently or more often than usual
Occassionally there can be other symptoms such as change in bowel habits, extreme fatigue, or unexplained weight loss. Any post-menopausal bleeding requires urgent investigation.
Critically, it is not just the presence of symptoms that helps to indicate ovarian cancer. Symptoms tend to be more persistent and frequent than similar symptoms caused by other conditions, for example, Irritable Bowel Syndrome.
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) gives clear guidance on how to manage symptomatic women:
- If physical examination identifies ascites and/or a pelvic or abdominal mass, the woman should be referred urgently.
- Women reporting persistent or frequent symptoms highly indicative of ovarian cancer should be given a serum CA125 blood test, particularly if they are aged 50 or over.
- If the CA125 is greater than 35 IU/ml then an ultrasound scan of the abdomen and pelvis should be arranged.
- If the ultrasound suggests ovarian cancer then the woman should be referred to gynae-oncology.
- Advise women with a normal CA125, or a CA125 greater than 35 IU/ml but a normal ultrasound to return for re-assessment if symptoms persist.
The NICE Quality Standard for ovarian cancer states that ‘women with normal CA125 or, raised CA125 but normal ultrasound, with no confirmed diagnosis but continuing symptoms, are reassessed by their GP within one month.’
Scottish SIGN guidance and the Scottish referral guidelines for suspected cancer recommends that women presenting with symptoms of ovarian cancer are referred for a CA125 serum test and urgent pelvic ultrasound scan. If the pelvic ultrasound is abnormal and/or the CA125 greater than 35 IU/ml women should be referred urgently to secondary care for further investigation.
Target Ovarian Cancer’s CA125 fact sheet and ultrasound fact sheet are available for GPs to give women who are undergoing diagnostic tests. The factsheets outline what the test is for, what to expect when having the test and what the results might mean.
Nearly two thirds of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer will have late stage disease at the point of diagnosis. The challenge for the GP is in the detective work required to weed out cases of ovarian cancer from cases of non-malignant disease.
- Misdiagnosis: Misdiagnosis is common, with women presenting with symptoms of ovarian cancer to initially receive a diagnosis of: irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), diverticulitis, acid reflux, urinary tract infection, or changing menopausal status. NICE and SIGN clinical guidelines advise that women over 50 rarely present with IBS for the first time.
- Bloating: A primary-care based study has shown that abdominal distention (increased abdominal size/persistent bloating – not bloating that comes and goes) is a high-risk symptom, warranting rapid investigation. A separate study found that a key challenge in diagnosis is the different language used by women and doctors, with women often using the word ‘bloating’ to cover both abdominal distention as well as fluctuating bloating and discomfort. Since persistent distension is a key indicator of ovarian cancer and fluctuating bloating is not, this can be a challenge for GPs.
- Follow up consultation: Women often fail to return for a follow up consultation even if their symptoms persist. GPs should encourage women to book a follow-up consultation within one month if symptoms persist (especially in cases where ovarian cancer is suspected). Suggesting that patients keep a record of symptom frequency and persistency may help a follow up appointment, patients can download a copy of our Symptoms Diary to help them.
Target Ovarian Cancer’s 10 top tips, developed with Macmillan Cancer Support, is aimed to help patients and GPs communicate more effectively with each other about the symptoms of ovarian cancer. Download the 10 Top Tips GP, or the 10 top tips for women to hand out
There is currently no national screening programme for ovarian cancer in the UK.
Two clinical trials are underway to assess the impact of screening on ovarian cancer mortality. Both trials are using the Transvaginal Ultrasound (TVU) and CA125 serum assay (blood test) as diagnostic tests.
UKCTOCS: The United Kingdom Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening study has recruited 200,000 women between the ages 50-74 from centres across the UK. The trial was only for women without symptoms of ovarian cancer and not at high risk of developing the disease due to a strong family history of either breast or ovarian cancer.
Results published in The Lancet show that the study's new approach to using the CA125 seum assay in the Risk of Ovarian Cancer Algorithm (ROCA) may help reduce the number of women dying from ovarian cancer by around 20 per cent, but the study stopped short of recommending that a screening programme for ovarian cancer would save lives.
At this stage there is not enough confidence that a screening programme would definitely impact mortality. Researchers will now conduct a follow-up to the trial for three more years to establish the full impact of ovarian cancer screening. Read more about UKCTOCS in our newstory.
UKFOCSS: The United Kingdom Familial Ovarian Cancer Screening Study looked at whether regular screening is beneficial for women at high-risk of developing ovarian cancer. Over 4,000 women with a 1 in 10 or greater risk of developing ovarian cancer due to family history or a faulty gene took part in the study. The results were published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology and indicated that four-monthly screening with the Risk of Ovarian Cancer Algorithm (ROCA) may be an option for these women until they decide to undergo surgery.
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